Some suggestions for post-16 resources

 

 

 

Post-16 pupils can explore a range of biological features at 'close-to-research' level with materials accessible here. We provide further information below in the form of an annotated collection of reprints of articles that you can download from this website. Other websites that will be useful to you include:

 

  • The World of Fungi website which provides the opportunity to study fungal growth kinetics using a user-friendly computer visualization of the most recent and most realistic mathematical model of fungal growth to generate 'cyber fungi' right there on your own computer screen.
  • Biology of Living Fungi a CD by Patrick D. Hickey and Nick D. Read. Published by the British Mycological Society, this CD is a compilation of movies that illustrate key aspects of the cell biology of living filamentous fungi obtained using confocal microscopy. The CD features time-lapse sequences and 3D-reconstructions of fungal cells stained with fluorescent dyes and/or expressing Green Fluorescent Protein, photographs of fungi in their natural habitat and movies of bioluminescent mushrooms. This CD-ROM is a powerful educational tool to show the dynamic nature of fungal cells. The CD-ROM can be purchased from the Fungal Cell Biology Group website.
  • When you are looking for sources of information on microbiology you should refer to MISAC (Microbiology in Schools Advisory Committee), which has been producing educational materials about microbiology for schools for over 25 years. MISAC currently (this page dated below) produces two items at 16+ level: Misac Matters, which is a newsletter, and MISAC Briefings, which are class sheets on specific subjects. The next issue of Misac Matters contains an article on yeast and there is a Briefing on 'Food from Fungi' written by Susan Isaac and Margaret Whalley. They are available at www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/misac.
  • While you're there, look at other areas of this website for resources for teachers and pupils learning about Microbiology published by the Society for General Microbiology at http://www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/.
  • A useful website to look at for information about medical matters is http://www.doctorfungus.org/ which gives information about fungal infections and mycology in general. 
  • The Aspergillus Website (http://www.aspergillus.man.ac.uk) offers comprehensive information about one of the most common causes of deep-seated mycosis in the western world.
  • If you need information about field mycology, you will probably find it at http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/ which is based on the most commonly-used field guide (Roger Phillips' Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe) and which aims to become the most complete collection of mushroom photographs ever assembled.
  • We have a detailed guide to the information you need to enjoy a school trip safely. Download PDF file or MSWord.doc by clicking the hyperlinks.
  • The British Mycological Society has maintained a computerized database of Fungal Records (now known as the BMSFRD) since 1986. BMSFRD currently contains over a million records of fungi from British Mycological Society forays, local recording groups and individuals, and published records of British fungi. The database, and how to use it, are described in more detail in Collecting and Recording Fungi [CLICK HERE to download]. You can visit the British Fungi Records Database (BMSFRD) Web pages using the following hyperlink: BMS Fungal Records Database.

  • The data in the BMSFRD can be used to produce maps of the distribution of species and to supply records for the use of official agencies and other organizations for conservation purposes. You can use this hyperlink to use the distribution maps: BMS Distribution Maps.

  • Why not visit the BMS website? Point your browser to this address for the most extensive information resource on fungal biology on the Internet: www.britmycolsoc.org.uk.

  • Do your pupils need expert, impartial advice on higher education and beyond? Then visit UniversityOptions, where you'll find information on a range of areas including finance and the jobs that different subjects can lead to.

  • As your students go on towards University, they will find the Skills4Study website a useful free resource that's full of practical advice to help them study more effectively at university.


 

In the sections below we offer you a collection of reprints covering a range of topics including:

 

Exploring genomes 

Medicine

Fungi as food

Fungal growth and biotechnology

Fungi in the environment

 

Copy freely for the classroom

Classroom materials may be copied freely for educational purposes only. All rights reserved for commercial use. © British Mycological Society 2006.

 

Exploring genomes

An up and coming area in the world of science is web based tutorials where pupils can work alone or in groups to work through the problems set. This maybe a useful possibility for teachers as it means you would have the opportunity to help pupils individually or in groups. The kingdom fungi are being used in many on-line genomic databases  as fungal genes make particularly good teaching models owing to their simple eukaryotic structure. Furthermore the yeast genome was the first to be sequenced, so a great many interesting "genome mining" mini projects can start with a yeast gene but then extend into animals (including human) and plants. Using the excellent Exploring Genomes Bioinformatics interactive tutorial published by W. H. Freeman on-line at http://bcs.whfreeman.com/mga2e/ you will be able to explore a variety of genomes.

 

Useful articles to look at are:

Paul Hooley, Alan Burns & Michael Whitehead (2004). Fungal gene sequences make excellent models for teaching data mining. Mycologist 18: 118-124. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Nabla Kennedy & Nicholas Clipson (2003). Fingerprinting the fungal community. Mycologist 17:158-164. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Mark Ramsdale (2003). Fungi and the bare necessities of life. Mycologist 17: 14. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Marilyn G. Wiebe (2003). Stable production of recombinant proteins in filamentous fungi – problems and improvements. Mycologist 17: 140-144. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

 

We also offer, for you to read on-line, two chapters taken from the book Slayers, Saviors, Servants, and Sex: An Exposé of Kingdom Fungi by David Moore; published by Springer-Verlag, New York: 2001, ISBN 0387950982. One about the evolution and origins of fungi, the other about reproduction.

Chapter 8: The old Kingdom in time and space  [CLICK HERE to download]

Chapter 9: Birds do it. Bees do it. Even educated fleas do it. But why?  [CLICK HERE to download]

If you like what you read here, you might feel like buying the book - CLICK HERE for purchasing information.

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Medicine

Fungi are just as important as bacteria in the forefront of medicine as they cause many diseases to both humans and plants. A useful website to look at is http://www.doctorfungus.org/ which gives information about fungal infections and mycology in general. Another useful website is the Aspergillus Website (http://www.aspergillus.man.ac.uk), which offers comprehensive information about one of the most common causes of deep-seated mycosis in the western world.

There are thought to be over 1.5 million species of fungi (CLICK HERE to download an article about this). Of these, most live on decaying vegetation, in partnership with algae (lichens) or tree roots (mycorrhizas) or are parasites of plants or insects. Only a few tens of species cause us any direct harm but Mycologist has featured a series of articles about the main species that do cause irritating, and in some cases life-threatening human infections or toxicoses. Click on the hyperlinks below to read the full story.

Liz Johnson (2003). Dermatophytes – the skin eaters. Mycologist 17: 147-149. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Frank C. Odds (2003). Coccidioidomycosis: flying conidia and severed heads. Mycologist 17: 37- 40. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Jean-Paul Latgé (2003). Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprotrophic pathogenic fungus. Mycologist 17: 56-61. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

David R. Soll, Shawn R. Lockhart & Rui Zhao (2003). Mating and virulence of Candida albicans. Mycologist 17: 64-69. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Andy Hamilton (2003). Penicillium marneffei: penicilliosis and the red peril in the east. Mycologist 17: 84-85. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Frank C. Odds (2003). Antifungal agents: their diversity and increasing sophistication. Mycologist 17: 51-55. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Dominique Sanglard (2003). Resistance and tolerance mechanisms to antifungal drugs in fungal pathogens. Mycologist 17: 74-78. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

David Langley (1997). Exploiting the fungi: novel leads to new medicines. Mycologist 11: 165-167. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Henry T. Tribe (1998). The discovery and development of cyclosporin. Mycologist 12: 20-23. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Paul. F. Hamlyn & Richard J. Schmidt (1994). Potential therapeutic application of fungal filaments in wound management. Mycologist 8: 147-152. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.  

Maurice O. Moss (2002). Mycotoxin review 1: Aspergillus and Penicillium. Mycologist 16: 116-119. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.  

Maurice O. Moss (2002). Mycotoxin review 2: Fusarium. Mycologist 16: 116-119. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.  

Maurice O. Moss (2003). Mycotoxin review 3: Houses and pastures. Mycologist 17: 79-83. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Roy Watling (1997). Poisoning by fungi: interesting cases. Mycologist 11: 101. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Edwards, J.N. & Henry, J.A. (1989). Medical problems of mushroom ingestion. Mycologist 3: 13-15. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.  

Milton Wainwright (1989). Moulds in ancient and more recent medicine. Mycologist 3:21-23. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.  

Vaidya, J.G. & Rabba, A.S. (1993). Fungi in folk medicine. Mycologist 7: 131-133. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Crundwell, E. (1987). The unnatural history of the fly agaric. Mycologist 1: 178-181. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

 

We also offer, for you to read on-line, two chapters taken from the book Slayers, Saviors, Servants, and Sex: An Exposé of Kingdom Fungi by David Moore; published by Springer-Verlag, New York: 2001, ISBN 0387950982. One about fungal toxins, the other about pharmaceuticals.

Chapter 1: Toxins ‑ kill the primates, rule the world. Or: Don’t turn your back on a fungus!  [CLICK HERE to download]

Chapter 5: Fungi in medicine ‑ antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals [CLICK HERE to download]

If you like what you read here, you might feel like buying the book - CLICK HERE for purchasing information.

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Fungi as food

Fungi are ideal food because they have a fairly high content of protein (typically 20-30% dry matter as crude protein) which contains all of the essential amino acids. Fungal biomass is also a source of dietary fibre, and is virtually free of cholesterol. Mushrooms are cultivated and collected around the world; in this section we offer a selection of reprints that discuss this aspect.  

David Moore & Siu Wai Chiu (2001). Fungal products as food. Chapter 10 in Bio-Exploitation of Filamentous Fungi (ed. S. B. Pointing & K. D. Hyde), pp. 223-251. Fungal Diversity Press: Hong Kong. (2001). CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Trinci, A.P.J. (1991). 'Quorn' mycoprotein. Mycologist 5: 106-109. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Wiebe, M. G. (2004). Quorn mycoprotein - overview of a successful fungal protduct. Mycologist 18: 17-20. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Pegler, D.N. (2003). Useful fungi of the world: the Shii-take, Shimeji, Enoki-take, and Nameko mushrooms. Mycologist 17: 3-5. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Pegler, D.N. (2003). Useful fungi of the world: the monkey head fungus. Mycologist 17: 120-121. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Pegler, D.N. (2003). Useful fungi of the world: morels and truffles. Mycologist 17: 174-175. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Amy M. Hanson, Kathie T. Hodge & Leila M. Porter (2003). Mycophagy among Primates. Mycologist 17: 6-10. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

 

We also offer, for you to read on-line, a chapter about food and drink taken from the book Slayers, Saviors, Servants, and Sex: An Exposé of Kingdom Fungi by David Moore; published by Springer-Verlag, New York: 2001, ISBN 0387950982.

Chapter 7: Let's party!  [CLICK HERE to download]

If you like what you read here, you might feel like buying the book - CLICK HERE for purchasing information.

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Fungal growth and biotechnology

Fungal filamentous growth can be interpreted on the basis of a regular cell cycle, and mycelial growth and morphology can be described mathematically. Here, we offer articles from Mycologist that describe fungal growth and branching in the vegetative (mycelial) phase. Remember, the World of Fungi website offers user-friendly computer visualization of fungal growth kinetics and the most realistic mathematical model of fungal growth to generate 'cyber fungi' right there on your own computer screen.

Jim Prosser (1990). Growth of fungal branching systems. Mycologist 4: 60-65. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Boswell, G.P., Jacobs, H., Gadd, G.M., Ritz, K. & Davidson, F.A. (2003). A mathematical approach to studying fungal mycelia. Mycologist 17: 165-171. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Money, N.P. (2004). The fungal dining habit: a biomechanical perspective. Mycologist 18: 71-76. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Watkinson, S.C., Boddy, L., Burton, K., Darrah, P.R., Eastwood, D., Fricker, M.D. & Tlalka, M. (2005). New approaches to investigating the function of mycelial networks. Mycologist 19: 11-17. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Lindahl, B.D. & Olsson, S. (2004). Fungal translocation - creating and responding to environmental heterogeneity. Mycologist 18: 79-88. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Jennings, D.H. (1987). Fungal biotechnology - the fundamental principles. Mycologist 1: 184-185. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

 

We also offer, for you to read on-line, three chapters taken from the book Slayers, Saviors, Servants, and Sex: An Exposé of Kingdom Fungi by David Moore; published by Springer-Verlag, New York: 2001, ISBN 0387950982. One about fungal recycling, one about biocontrol of pests, and the third about the future for bioremediation.

Chapter 3: Decay and degradation, a fungal speciality [CLICK HERE to download]

Chapter 6: Turning the tables. Using fungi to control other pests [CLICK HERE to download]

Chapter 10: The cavalry is coming. Fungi to the rescue [CLICK HERE to download]

If you like what you read here, you might feel like buying the book - CLICK HERE for purchasing information.

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Fungi in the environment

The environment is all around us - the soil, the minerals, the plants, the animals. Everything, everywhere.

Hawksworth, D.L. (1997). The fascination of fungi: exploring fungal diversity. Mycologist 11: 18-22. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Finlay, R.D. (2004). Mycorrhizal fungi and their multifunctional roles. Mycologist 18: 91-96. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Tibbett, M. & Carter, D.O. (2003). Mushrooms and taphonomy: the fungi that mark woodland graves. Mycologist 17: 20-24. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Shaw, P.J.A. & Kibby, G. (2001). Aliens in the flower beds. The fungal biodiversity of ornamental woodchips. Field Mycology 2: 6-11. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Shaw, P.J.A., Butlin, J. & Kibby, G. (2004). Fungi of ornamental woodchips in Surrey. Mycologist 18: 12-15. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Burford, E.P., Kierans, M. & Gadd, G.M. (2003). Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist 17: 98-107. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Ritz, K. & Young, I.M. (2004). Interactions between soil structure and fungi. Mycologist 18: 52-59. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

Gadd, G.M. (2004). Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist 18: 60-70. CLICK HERE to download the complete text.

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Fungi for Schools - an integrated  collection of teaching resources © British Mycological Society 2006

24/01/2007